Health Tip of The Day

Wednesday, February 23, 2011

MUSCULE ORIGIN AND INSERTION CHART FOR PHYSIOTHERAPY STUDENTS

Muscle Attachments Shoulder and Arm

Bones and Bony Landmarks

  • Acromioclavicular Joint (AC)
  • Clavicle
  • Coracoid Process
  • Deltoid Tuberosity
  • Greater Tubercle
  • Inferior Angle
  • Infraglenoid Tubercle
  • Lateral Border
  • Lesser Tubercle
  • Medial Border
  • Spine Of The Scapula
  • Sternoclavicular Joint (SC)
  • Subscapular Fossa
  • Superior Angle
  • Supraspinous Fossa

Muscles

Biceps Brachii

Origin

Short Head: Coracoid Process Of Scapula

Long Head: Supraglenoid Tubercle Of Scapula

Insertion

Tuberosity Of The Radius And Aponeurosis Of The Biceps Brachii

Actions

Flex The Elbow, Supinate The Forearm, Flex The Shoulder Joint

Coracobrachialis

Origin

Coracoid Process Of Scapula

Insertion

Medial Surface Of Middle Shaft Of Humerus

Actions

Flex, Adduct The Should Joint

Deltoid

Origin

Lateral One Third Of Clavicle, Acromion And Spine Of Scapula

Insertion

Deltoid Tuberosity

Actions

All Fibers: Abduct The Shoulder Joint

Posterior: Extend And Laterally Rotate The Shoulder Joint

Anterior: Flex And Medially Rotate The Shoulder Joint

Latissimus Dorsi

Origin

Spinous Processes Of Last Six Thoracic Vertebrae, Last three or four ribs, Thoracolumbar Aponeurosis, and Posterior Iliac Crest

Insertion

Crest Of The Lesser Tubercle Of The Humerus

Actions

Extend, Adduct, Medially Rotate The Shoulder Joint

Levator Scapula

Origin

Transverse Processes Of 1st Thru 4th Cervical Vertebrae

Insertion

Medial Border And Superior Angle Of Scapula

Actions

Unilateral: Elevate, Downwardly Rotate The Scapula, Laterally Flex Head And Neck

Bilateral: Extend Head And Neck

Pectoralis Major

Origin

Medial Half Of Clavicle, Sternum, Cartilage Of Ribs One Thru Six

Insertion

Crest Of Greater Tubercle Of Humerus

Actions

As A Whole: Adduct, Medially Rotate The Shoulder Joint, May Assist In Elevating The thorax in forced inspiration

Upper Fibers: Flex, Medially Rotate, Horizontally Adduct The Shoulder Joint

Lower Fibers: Extend, Adduct The Shoulder Joint

Pectoralis Minor

Origin

Third, Fourth And Fifth Ribs

Insertion

Coracoid Process Of Scapula

Actions

Depress, Abduct, Tilt The Scapula Anteriorly, Assist In Forced Inspiration

Rhomboid Major

Origin

Spinous Processes Of T-2 To T-5

Insertion

Medial Border Of The Scapula Between Spine And Inferior Angle

Actions

Adduct, Elevate, Downwardly Rotate The Scapula

Rhomboid Minor

Origin

Spinous Processes Of C-7 And T-1

Insertion

Medial Border Of The Scapula Between Spine And Inferior Angle

Actions

Adduct, Elevate, Downwardly Rotate The Scapula

Supraspinatus

Origin

Supraspinous Fossa Of Scapula

Insertion

Greater Tubercle Of Humerus

Actions

Adduct Humerus, Stabilize Head Of Humerus In Glenoid Cavity

Infraspinatus

Origin

Infraspinous Fossa Of Scapula

Insertion

Greater Tubercle Of Humerus

Actions

Laterally Rotate, Adduct, Extend The Shoulder Joint, Stabilize Head of Humerus in Glenoid Cavity

Subscapularis

Origin

Subscapular Fossa Of The Scapula

Insertion

Lesser Tubercle Of The Humerus

Actions

Medially Rotate The Shoulder Joint, Stabilize Head of Humerus in Glenoid Cavity

Teres Minor

Origin

Superior Half Of Lateral Border Of Scapula

Insertion

Greater Tubercle Of Humerus

Actions

Laterally Rotate, Adduct, Extend Shoulder Joint, Stabilize Head of Humerus in Glenoid Cavity

Serratus Anterior

Origin

Surfaces Of Upper 8 Or 9 Ribs

Insertion

Anterior Surface Of Medial Border Of Scapula

Actions

With Origin Fixed: Abduct The Scapula, Hold Medial Border Of Scapula Against Rib Cage

Scapula Stabilized: May Act In Forced Inspiration

Subclavius

Origin

First Rib And Cartilage

Insertion

Inferior, Lateral Aspect Of The Clavicle

Actions

Draws Clavicle Down And Forward, Elevates 1st Rib, Stabilizes The Sternoclavicular Joint

Teres Major

Origin

Dorsal Surfaces Of Inferior Angle And Lower Half Of Lateral Border of Scapula

Insertion

Crest Of The Lesser Tubercle Of The Humerus

Actions

Extend, Adduct, Medially Rotate The Humerus

Trapezius

Origin

External Occipital Protuberance, Medial Portion Of Superior Nuchal Line of Occiput, Ligamentum Nuchae and Spinous Processes of C-7 Through T-12

Insertion

Lateral Portion Of Clavicle, Acromion And Spine Of Scapula

Actions

Upper:

  • Bilateral: Extend The Head And Neck
  • Unilateral: Extend, Laterally Flex, Rotate Head And Neck To Opposite Side, Elevate, Upwardly Rotate the Scapula

Middle: Adduct, Stabilize The Scapula

Lower: Depress, Upwardly Rotate The Scapula

Triceps Brachii

Origin

Long Head: Infraglenoid Tubercle Of Scapula

Lateral Head: Posterior Surface Of Proximal Half Of Humerus

Medial Head: Posterior Surface Of Distal Half Of Humerus

Insertion

Olecranon Process Of Ulna

Actions

All Heads: Extend The Elbow

Long Head: Extend, Adduct The Shoulder Joint

http://www.uggen.net/mike/writing/muscle/arm.htm

Muscle Attachments Pelvis and Thigh

Bones and Bony Landmarks

  • Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine
  • Anterior Superior Iliac Spine
  • Coccyx
  • Gluteal Tuberosity
  • Greater Trochanter
  • Iliac Crest
  • Iliac Fossa
  • Inferior Ramus Of The Pubis
  • Ischial Tuberosity
  • Posterior Superior Iliac Spine
  • Pubic Crest And Tubercles
  • Ramus Of The Ischium
  • Sacroiliac (SI) Joint
  • Sacrum
  • Superior Ramus Of The Pubis

Muscles

Adductor Magnus

Origin

Inferior Ramus Of The Pubis, Ramus Of Ischium, Ischial Tuberosity

Insertion

Linea Aspera And Adductor Tubercle

Actions

Adduct Hip, Medially Rotate Hip, Assist Hip Flexion

Posterior Fibers Also Extend The Hip

Adductor Longus

Origin

Pubic Tubercle

Insertion

Medial Lip Of Linea Aspera

Actions

Adduct Hip, Medially Rotate Hip, Assist Hip Flexion

Adductor Brevis

Origin

Inferior Ramus Of Pubix

Insertion

Pectineal Line And Medial Lip Of Linea Aspera

Actions

Adduct Hip, Medially Rotate Hip, Assist Hip Flexion

Pectineus

Origin

Superior Ramus Of Pubis

Insertion

Pectineal Line Of Femur

Actions

Adduct Hip, Medially Rotate Hip, Assist Hip Flexion

Gracilis

Origin

Inferior Ramus Of Pubis And Ramus Of Ischium

Insertion

Proximal, Medial Shaft Of Tibia At Pes Anserius Tendon

Actions

Adduct Hip, Medially Rotate Hip, Assist Hip Flexion

Also Flexes And Medially Rotates The Knee

Gluteus Maximus

Origin

Coccyx, Posterior Sacrum, Posterior Iliac Crest, Sacrotuberus And Sacroiliac Ligaments

Insertion

Gluteal Tuberosity (Upper Fibers), Iliotibial Tract (Lower Fibers)

Actions

Extends, Laterally Rotates, And Abducts The Hip; Lower Fibers, Adduct the Hip

Gluteus Medius

Origin

External Surface Of The Ilium Between The Iliac Crest And Posterior And Anterior Gluteal Lines

Insertion

Greater Trochanter

Actions

Abducts, Flexes, Extends And Laterally And Medially, Rotates Hip

Gluteus Minimus

Origin

External Surface Of The Ilium Between Anterior And Inferior Gluteal Lines

Insertion

Anterior Border Of Greater Trochanter

Actions

Abducts, Flexes, And Medially Rotates Hip

Biceps Femoris

Origin

Long Head: Ischial Tuberosity

Short Head: Lateral Lip Of Linea Aspera

Insertion

Head Of The Fibula

Actions

Flex Knee, Extend Hip, Tilt Pelvis Posteriorly, Also Laterally Rotate Hip And Flexed Knee

Semitendinosus

Origin

Ischial Tuberosity

Insertion

Proximal, Medial Shaft Of The Tibia

Actions

Flex Knee, Extend Hip, Tilt Pelvis Posteriorly, Also Medially Rotate Hip And Flexed Knee

Semimembranosus

Origin

Ischial Tuberosity

Insertion

Posterior Aspect Of medial Condyle Of Tibia

Actions

Flex Knee, Extend Hip, Tilt Pelvis Posteriorly, Also Medially Rotate Hip And Flexed Knee

Psoas Major

Origin

Bodies And Transverse Processes Of Lumbar Vertebrae

Insertion

Lesser Trochanter Of Femur

Actions

Flexes, Adducts And Laterally Rotates Hip

Iliacus

Origin

Iliac Fossa

Insertion

Lesser Trochanter Of Femur

Actions

Flexes, Adducts And Laterally Rotates Hip

Piriformis

Origin

Anterior Surface Of Sacrum

Insertion

Greater Trochanter

Actions

Laterally Rotate Hip, Abduct Thigh When Hip Is Flexed

Quadratus Femoris

Origin

Lateral Border Of Ischial Tuberosity

Insertion

Posterior Surface Of Femur Between Greater And Lesser Trochanter

Actions

Laterally Rotates Hip

Obdurator Internus

Origin

Obdurator Membrane And Pelvic Surface

Insertion

Medial Surface Of Greater Trochanter

Actions

Laterally Rotates Hip

Obdurator Externus

Origin

Superior And Inferior Rami Of Pubis

Insertion

Trochanteric Fossa Of Femur

Actions

Laterally Rotates Hip

Gemellus Inferior

Origin

Ischial Tuberosity

Insertion

Upper Border Of Greater Trochanter

Actions

Laterally Rotates Hip

Gemellus Superior

Origin

Spine Of The Ischium

Insertion

Upper Border Of Greater Trochanter

Actions

Laterally Rotates Hip

Rectus Femoris

Origin

Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine (AIIS)

Insertion

Tibial Tuberosity

Actions

Extend Knee, Flex Hip

Vastus Medialis

Origin

Medial Lip Of Linea Aspera

Insertion

Tibial Tuberosity

Actions

Extend Knee

Vastus Lateralis

Origin

Lateral Lip Of Linea Aspera, Gluteal Tuberosity

Insertion

Tibial Tuberosity

Actions

Extend Knee

Vastus Intermedius

Origin

Anterior And Lateral Shaft Of Femur

Insertion

Tibial Tuberosity

Actions

Extend Knee

Sartorius

Origin

Anterior Superior Iliac Spine (ASIS)

Insertion

Proximal, Medial Shaft Of Tibia

Actions

Flex, Abduct And Laterally Rotate Hip, Flex Knee, Medially Rotate Flexed Knee

Tensor Fascia Latae

Origin

Iliac Crest, Posterior To ASIS

Insertion

Iliotibial Tract

Actions

Flex, Abduct And Medially Rotate Hip

Iliotibial Tract

This is a superficial sheet of fascia along the lateral thigh, extending from the gluteal fascia, down to the tibial tubercle at the knee. It is wide and dense in the upper thigh but narrows to a funnel shape above the knee.

http://www.uggen.net/mike/writing/muscle/pelvis.htm

Muscle Attachments - Leg and Foot

Of the Knee

  • Femur
  • Fibula
  • Patella
  • Tibia

Of the Ankle and Foot

  • Calcaneus
  • Fibula
  • Tibia
  • Hallucis
  • Metatarsals
  • Phalanges
  • Sesamoid Bones
  • Talus
  • Tarsals

Of the Knee

  • Adductor Tubercle
  • Edges Of Femoral Condyles
  • Epicondyles Of Femur
  • Head Of Fibula
  • Pes Anserinus Attachment
  • Shaft Of Tibia
  • Tibial Plateaus
  • Tibial Tuberosity

Of the Ankle and Foot

  • Sustenaculum Tali
  • Peroneal Tubercle
  • Lateral And Medial Malleoli
  • Malleolar Grooves
  • Head Of Talus
  • Trochlea Of Talus
  • Medial Tubercle Of Talus
  • Cuboid
  • Cuneiforms
  • Navicular

Muscles

Gastrocnemius

Origin

Posterior Condyles Of Femur

Insertion

Calcaneus Via Calcaneal Tendon

Actions

Flex Knee, Plantar Flex Ankle

Peroneus Longus

Origin

Proximal Two-Thirds Of Lateral Fibula

Insertion

Base Of First Metatarsal And Medial Cuneiform

Actions

Everts Foot, Assists In Plantar Flexion Of Ankle

Peroneus Brevis

Origin

Distal Two-Thirds Of Lateral Fibula

Insertion

Tuberosity Of Fifth Metatarsal

Actions

Everts Foot, Assists In Plantar Flexion Of Ankle

Plantaris

Origin

Lateral Epicondyle Of Femur

Insertion

Calcaneus Via Calcaneal Tendon

Actions

Weak Plantar Flexion Of Ankle

Popliteus

Origin

Lateral Condyle Of Femur

Insertion

Proximal, Posterior Aspect Of Tibia

Actions

Medially Rotates Flexed Knee, Flexes Knee

Soleus

Origin

Soleal Line And Posterior Surface Of Tibia, Proximal, Posterior Surface Of Fibula

Insertion

Calcaneus Via Calcaneal Tendon

Actions

Plantar Flex Ankle

Tibialis Anterior

Origin

Lateral Condyle And Proximal Lateral Surface Of Tibia, Interosseous Membrane

Insertion

Medial Cuneiform, Base Of First Metatarsal

Actions

Inverts Foot, Dorsiflexes Ankle

Extensor Digitorum Longus

Origin

Lateral Condyle Of Tibia, Proximal Anterior Shaft Of Fibula, Interosseous Membrane

Insertion

Middle And Distal Phalanges Of Second Through Fifth Toes

Actions

Extends Second Through Fifth Toes, Dorsiflexes Ankle, Everts Foot

Extensor Hallicis Longus

Origin

Middle Anterior Surface Of Fibula, Interosseous Membrane

Insertion

Distal Phalanges Of First Toe

Actions

Extends First Toe, Dorsiflexes Ankle, Inverts Foot

Tibialis Posterior

Origin

Proximal Posterior Shaft Of Tibia, Proximal Fibula, Interosseous Membrane

Insertion

Navicular, Cuneiform, Cuboid, Bases Of Second Through Fourth Metatarsals

Actions

Inverts Foot, Plantar Flexes Ankle

Flexor Digitorum Longus

Origin

Middle Posterior Surface Of Tibia

Insertion

Distal Phalanges Of Second Through Fifth Toes

Actions

Flexes Second Through Fifth Toes, Inverts Foot, Weak Plantar Flexion Of Ankle

Flexor Hallicis Longus

Origin

Middle Half Of Posterior Fibula

Insertion

Distal Phalanx Of First Toe

Actions

Flexes First Toe, Inverts Foot, Weak Plantar Flexion Of Ankle

Extensor Digitorum Brevis

Origin

Dorsal Surface Of Calcaneus

Insertion

Second Through Fourth Toes Via Extensor Digitorum Longus Tendon

Actions

Extends Second Through Fourth Toes

Flexor Digitorum Brevis

Origin

Plantar Surface Of Calcaneus

Insertion

Middle Phalanges Of Second Through Fourth Toes

Actions

Flexes Middle Phalanges Of Second Through Fourth Toes

Abductor Hallucis

Origin

Plantar Surface Of Calcaneus

Insertion

Proximal Phalange On First Toe, Medial Side, Medial Sesamoid Bone

Actions

Abducts First Toe, Assists In Flexion Of First Toe

Abductor Digiti Minimi

Origin

Plantar Surface Of Calcaneus

Insertion

Proximal Phalange Of Fifth Toe

Actions

Flexes Fifth Toe, Assists In Abduction Of Fifth Toe

Muscle Attachments Spine and Thorax

Bones and Bony Landmarks

  • Cervicals - Lamina Groove
  • Cervicals - Spinous Processes
  • Cervicals - Transverse Processes
  • Ribs And Costal Cartilage
  • Thoracic And Lumbar: Lamina Groove
  • Thoracic And Lumbar: TVPS
  • Sternum
  • Vertebrae - Spinous Processes

Muscles

Diaphragm

Origin

Costal attachment: Inner surface of lower six ribs

Lumbar attachment: Upper two or three lumbar vertebrae

Sternal attachment: Inner part of xyphoid process

Insertion

Central Tendon

Actions

Draws down the central tendon of diaphragm and increases thoracic cavity volume

Spinalis

Origin

Spinous Process Of The Upper Lumbar And Lower Thoracic Vertebrae, Ligamentum Nuchae, and Spinous Process of C-7

Insertion

Spinous Processes Of Upper Thoracic And Cervicals Except C-1

Actions

Bilateral: Extend Vertebral Column

Unilateral: Laterally Flex Vertebral Column To Same Side

Longissimus

Origin

Common Tendon (Tla), Transverse Processes Of Upper Five Thoracic Vertebrae

Insertion

Lower 9 Ribs, TVPs Of Thoracic And Cervical Vertebrae, Mastoid Process of Temporal Bone

Actions

Bilateral: Extend Vertebral Column

Unilateral: Laterally Flex Vertebral Column To Same Side

Iliocostalis

Origin

Common Tendon (Tla), Posterior Surface Of Ribs 1-12

Insertion

Posterior Surface Of Ribs 1-12

Actions

Bilateral: Extend Vertebral Column

Unilateral: Laterally Flex Vertebral Column To Same Side

External Obliques

Origin

Lower eight ribs

Insertion

Anterior part of iliac crest, abdominal aponeurosis to linea alba

Actions

Bilateral: flexes vertebral column and compresses abdominal contents

Unilateral flexes vertebral column to same side, rotates vertebral column to opposite side

Internal Obliques

Origin

Lateral inguinal ligament, iliac crest, thoracolumbar fascia

Insertion

Cartilage of bottom three ribs, abdominal aponeurosis to linea alba

Actions

Bilateral: flexes vertebral column, compresses abdominal contents

Unilateral: flexes vertebral column to same side, rotates vertebral column to opposite side

Intercostals

Origin

Inferior border of the rib above

Insertion

Superior border of the rib below

Actions

External Intercostals draw the ventral part of ribs upward, increase space in thoracic cavity

Internal Intercostals draw ventral part of ribs down decreasing space

Suboccipitals

Suboccipital

Rectus Capitis Posterior Major

Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor

Oblique Capitis Superior

Oblique Capitis Inferior

Origin

Spinous Process of the axis (C2)

Tubercle of the posterior arch of atlas (C1)

Transverse process of atlas (C1)

Spinous process of axis (C2)

Insertion

Inferior nuchal line of the occiput

Inferior nuchal line of occiput

Between nuchal lines of occiput

Transverse process of atlas (C1)

Actions

Rock and tilt head into extension, rotate head to same side

Rock and tilt head into extension

Rock and tilt head into extension

Rotate head to same side

Transverse Abdominus

Origin

Lateral inguinal ligament, iliac crest, thoracolumbar fascia, cartilage of lower six ribs

Insertion

Abdominal aponeurosis to linea alba

Actions

Compresses abdominal contents

Multifidi And Rotatores

Origin

Sacrum And TVPs Of Lumbar Thru Cervical Vertebrae

Insertion

Spinous Processes Of Lumbar Thru 2nd Cervical Vertebrae (MULTIFIDI SPAN 2-4; ROTATORES SPAN 1-2 VERTEBRAE)

Actions

Extend, Rotate Vertebral Column To Opposite Side

Splenius Capitis

Origin

Ligamentum Nuchae, Spinous Processes Of C-7 Thru T-3

Insertion

Mastoid Process, Lateral Nuchal Line

Actions

Unilateral: Rotate Head To Same Side, Laterally Flex Head And Neck

Bilateral: Extend Head

Splenius Cervicis

Origin

Spinous Processes Of T-3 Thru T-6

Insertion

TVPs Of The Upper Cervical Vertebrae

Actions

Unilateral: Rotate Head To Same Side, Laterally Flex Head And Neck

Bilateral: Extend Head

Quadratus Lumborum

Origin

Posterior Iliac Crest, Iliolumbar Ligament

Insertion

Last Rib, TVPs Of 1st Thru 4th Lumbar Vertebrae

Actions

Unilateral: Elevate Hip, Laterally Flex, Assists To Extend Vertebral Column

Bilateral: Fixes Last Rib During Respiration

http://www.uggen.net/mike/writing/muscle/spine.htm

Muscle Attachments - Head, neck and face

Bones

  • Frontal
  • Hyoid
  • Mandible
  • Maxilla
  • Nasal
  • Occiput
  • Parietal
  • Sphenoid
  • Temporal
  • Zygomatic

Bony Landmarks

  • Condyle Of Mandible
  • Coronoid Process Of Mandible
  • External Occipital Protuberance
  • Mastoid Process
  • Styloid Process Of Temporal Bone
  • Superior Nuchal Line
  • Thyroid And Cricoid Cartilages
  • Trachea
  • Zygomatic Arch

Muscles

Infrahyoids

Origin

Omohyoid: Superior border of scapula

Sternohyoid and Sternothyroid: Manubrium

Insertion

Omohyoid and Sternohyoid: Hyoid bone

Sternothyroid: Thyroid cartilage

Actions

Depress hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage

Masseter

Origin

Zygomatic Arch

Insertion

Angle And Ramus Of Mandible

Actions

Elevate The Mandible

Occipitofrontalis

Origin

Frontalis and Occipitalis: Galea aponeurotica

Insertion

Frontalis: Skin over eyebrows

Occipitalis: Superior nuchal line of occiput

Actions

Frontalis raises eyebrows and wrinkles forehead

Occipitalis anchors and retracts galea posteriorly

Platysma

Origin

Fascia covering superior part of pectoralis major

Insertion

Edge of mandible, skin of lower part of face

Actions

Assists depression of mandible (TMJ) tightens neck fascia

Anterior Scalene

Origin

TVPs Of 3rd To 6th Cervical Vertebrae

Insertion

First Rib

Actions

Bilateral: Elevate Ribs During Inhalation, Flex Head and Neck

Unilateral: With Rib Fixed, Laterally Flex Neck (Anterior And Middle), Rotate Head and Neck to Opposite Site (Anterior And Middle)

Middle Scalenes

Origin

TVPs Of 2nd To 7th Cervical Vertebrae

Insertion

First Rib

Actions

Bilateral: Elevate Ribs During Inhalation, Flex Head And Neck

Unilateral: With Rib Fixed, Laterally Flex Neck (Anterior And Middle), Rotate Head And Neck To Opposite Site (Anterior And Middle)

Posterior Scalenes

Origin

TVPs Of 5th And 6th Cervical Vertebrae

Insertion

Second Rib

Actions

Bilateral: Elevate Ribs During Inhalation, Flex Head and Neck

Sternocleidomastoid

Origin

Sternal: Head Top Of Manubrium

Clavicular: Head Medial One-Third Of Clavicle

Insertion

Mastoid Process Of Temporal Bone, Lateral Superior Line Of Occiput

Actions

Unilateral: Laterally Flex Head To Same Side, Rotate Head To Opposite Side

Bilateral: Flex Neck, Assist In Inspiration

Suprahyoids And Digastric

Subprahyoids

Digastric

Origin

Geniohyoid and Mylohyoid – underside of mandible

Stylohyoid – Styloid process

Mastoid process deep to SCM and splenius capitis

Insertion

Hyoid bone

Inferior border of mandible

Actions

Elevate hyoid and tongue, depress mandible (TMJ)

With hyoid bone fixed depresses mandible (TMJ)

With mandible fixed elevates hyoid

Retracts mandible

Temporalis

Origin

Temporal Fossa And Fascia

Insertion

Coronoid Process Of The Mandible

Actions

Elevate, Retract The Mandible

http://www.uggen.net/mike/writing/muscle/head.htm

COURTESY

WWW.UGGEN.NET

1 comment:

ananthi said...

good and simple notes.. but that one dont have nerve supply